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Otherwise we might be blamed later on for having dealt amateurishly with difficult question such as the remediation of contaminated sites. Certainly, it is very useful to apply biological methods, where they really seem useful.

NewspaperSG - The Straits Times, 4 June

But Dell Dimension 4400 Nec NR-9100A CD-RW is impossible to solve all problems with microbiology. The aim must always be a combination of different methods. The reputation of microbial processes in the frame. In order to increase the possibilities to use microbial activities for the elimination of contaminants, I put the main interest in the fellowship programme on two problems which prohibit the biodegradation processes. Even when mobile oil has been removed by pumping, residual trapped oil can be a long-lasting source of water contamination by soluble hydrocarbons which therefore should be removed. Enhanced biodegradation should be used with the support "of other means, described elsewhere [7].

For the application of in-situ measures the following preconditions must be guaranteed: Biodegradability of the contaminants Concentration of the contaminants Absence of toxic substances e.

Among the different factors, which limit biodegradation, listed in Table 2, I first want to focus on the bioavailability of the contaminants for the bacteria. Limiting factors for the biodegradation in contaminated sites Dell Dimension 4400 Nec NR-9100A CD-RW Physiological conditions composition of inorganic nutrients, con centration of the nutrients 2 toxic substances e. Normally, the contaminants are very well attached to the soil or even integrated into the soil matrix - as it is known in the case of clay. We have to consider that the pollution of the soil normally takes a very long time in the case of coalgasification plants about 50 years and so diffusion plays a predominant role.

We cannot expect that the organics are released within a short period of time. So it is an urgent task to increase the concentration of the pollutants in the aqueous- phase to enable the bacteria to biodegrade them. In my opinion, it is not worth increasing the number of bacteria artificially because they are not able to penetrate the soil, at least in the case of clay. The first step of remediation is to establish and maintain conditions which allow biodegradation. The second step is done by the bacteria themselves: In order to illustrate the problem, an example of a laboratory experiment is described here.

A column has been filled with sand that had been contaminated artificially with a consortium of 10 different PAH's. The initial concentra- tions of the soil used in the experiment are given in the first row of the next table. As a proof for the bacteria, the incubation was done with naphthalene as a single carbon source. In the beginning, there is an increase in the population of 2 orders of magnitude, followed by a plateauphase which is almost constant over a period of 5 weeks. After the plateauphase, there is a decline of the number of bacteria combined with a decrease in the concentration of PAH's in water to a minimum of 0.

The concentration of PAH's in the soil, however, still is very high 1. The result was another increase in the number of bacteria in the system.

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The microorganisms where neither prohibited by acetone nor were they able to biodegrade it. The value is given separately because there was another step done at the end of the experiment which should be discussed in another scope. In order to increase the biodegradability we used UV-radiation. HgCl was used to kill the bacteria, only a slight decrease Dell Dimension 4400 Nec NR-9100A CD-RW PAH's could be found due to From these data we can conclude that the solubility of PAH's is the growth limiting factor. For that reason, we have to look for a method to increase the release of pollutants from a clay material. Paul Roberts and Dr. Lewis Semprini from Stanford University deal with similar problems concerning bioavailability of contaminants in the subsurface.

They measure the effect of sorption on the rate of biodegradation [3]. This group puts the main focus on the biodegradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Another research group at Rice University in Houston carries out special experiments with the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in clay materials Prof. The problem we have to tackle is the release of organics bound to the soil in order to increase the solubility and therefore to enable biodegradability in the first place. The Dell Dimension 4400 Nec NR-9100A CD-RW of the use of organic surfactants are summarized in [1] and [9] and are not explained in detail here. I just want to mention the increase of biomass and gasproduction which decreases the hydraulic permeability to zero.

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Moreover, toxic surfactants can principally not be used. The requirements a surfactant has to meet are: We were able to find out that pyrophosphates fullfil the preconditions, at least on a laboratory scale. The example of the experiment shows the effect of Na-Pyrophosphate on the release of PAH's attached to sand.

The experimental conditions are described at the top of the figure. The best efficiency of pyrophosphates to increase the PAH content in the supernatant is in the concentration range of 0. Firmware update for "NEC NRA HH 40x CD-RW Drive" Dell P/N 2P, 8N drive has problem writing on Sony 32x CD-R Media.

Dimension Fixes: This firmware resolved an issue where the NEC NRA drive has problem writing on Sony 32x CD-R Media. It is highly.

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